arguments against the cosmological argument

Hume was a sceptic and therefore doubtful about the claims of religion. The cosmological, or “first cause” argument, is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God. Rape worsens well being and hence immoral. Yet it is perfectly acceptable to posit that not only does your (puny) mind know the extent of the *universe*, it posits an even more infinite being which is uncaused or eternal in the same sense that you denied the universe could be – and this somehow does not ‘contradict’ your infinite knowledge that the universe is finite. Things exist. The first objection, which is attracting the attention of many atheist scholars, is that of infinite regression. Then why call him God?”. The question is not about what got things started or how long they have been going, but rather what keeps them going. Richard Swinburne contends that the cosmological argument is notdeductively valid; if it were, Swinburne is correct that if someone believes that a deductivecosmological argument (proof) for God’s existence is sound, thenit would be incoherent for that same person to then deny that Godexists. 2. The process of clotting №2H begins at a certain point in time God begins at the end of its deployment. Does he care about the staving. You can imagine them having simply appeared by themselves, conforming to some but not all laws of physics all you want, but the fact remains that they didn’t. Since time has not been existing for an infinite period, something must have caused time to begin to exist. The Islamic god also fails to meet the criteria, because you can derive from the facts of nature that the true God would have to be timeless, which would mean that He would be changeless with respect to time, which means that any rules, promises, etc will be consistent from the beginning of time to the end (if there was such a thing as an end). “the impossibility of an infinite causal chain is reasonable, not arbitrary, because the alternative contradicts all of my previous knowledge of the universe.”. The first cause argument is an argument for the existence of God associated with St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). In them Philo, Demea and Cleanthes discuss arguments for the existence of God. Case Against Faith. >>>>>How could one prove that the universe created by a personal, Christian God, and not a Hindu deity, a computer hacker in another dimension, or the flying spaghetti monster? • Timeless and changeless (He created time) See eternal. Then, define some function, f, such that f is a tuple that takes in a set of entities and a address in the form of a Universe’s space and returns a Universe (f:ExA->U). The role that remains for the infinite to play is solely that of an idea." A self-existent entity can. • Omnipresent (He created space and is not limited by it) The… If we ask what causes something, it is some prior thing; and as we go back in the chain of … This is a scientific fact that even atheistic astrophysicists accept. • Personal (the impersonal can’t create personality). “Atlas.” a) Explain Hume’s criticisms of the cosmological argument. Also see the Contingency and Moral arguments presented on that site. It has simply always existed, apart from any causal chain. An infinite regression of causes ultimately has no initial cause, which means there is no cause of existence. So Dawkins' argument for atheism is a failure even if we concede, for the sake of argument, all its steps. 3. Is it a correct reading of your argument against a “first cause” for the universe that there can be no “first cause” or “prime entity” that exists outside of the universe because “universe” is inclusive of all entities and thus all causes? Jason Ross: 1. The specificity of the cosmos is evidence of its reality. Our unit on the philosophy of religion and the existence of god continues with Thomas Aquinas. If I walk from one side of the room to the other, my body exists in an infinite number of locations along that path during the time it takes me to do so. The universe is a dependent entity, because every single one of its parts is dependent, and the whole is not greater than the sum of its parts. • Infinite and singular (as you cannot have two infinites) Richard Hanley argues that causal loops are not logically, physically, or epistemically impossible: “[In timed systems,] the only possibly objectionable feature that all causal loops share is that coincidence is required to explain them.”[24], David Hume and later Paul Edwards have invoked a similar principle in their criticisms of the cosmological argument. The strengths fo the cosmological argument outweigh the weaknesses. Clarke’s Cosmological Argument In the following paper, I will outline Samuel Clarke’s “Modern Formulation of the Cosmological Argument” and restate some of the points that he makes. However, suppose this: there are an infinite number of disjoint universes, each mapping to a positive, integer number. ... Each argument for God requires an article on its own, and those arguments against Him likewise deserve a dedicated time to explain and disprove. Although this criticism is directed against a cosmological argument, similar to that of Samuel Clarke in his first Boyle Lecture, it has been applied to ontological arguments as well. “It is more logical to conclude that the origin of the universe is the simplest one possible, since all higher-level causes derive from it. Secondly, it is argued that the premise of causality has been arrived at via a posteriori (inductive) reasoning, which is dependent on experience. The universe has always existed — but this means only that as long as the universe has existed, so has time. The basic argument is that all things that have beginnings had to have causes. • Intelligent (supremely, to create everything) According to you he didn’t create himself. 1. You just need to define those infinites so that they are not conflict. It is believed that the universe is on the order of 20 Billion lightyears across, and that the total amount of electrons in the universe is 10^80. The set of a finite number of finite entities is finite. Can you show me a personality not being dependent on a material existence. 3. 2. b. When all is said and done, the only remaining candidate for First Cause is Yahweh, the Creator God of the Bible. All entities in the universe may be finite, but the set of entities need not be. It were better therefore never to look beyond the present material world." It would be correct to say that the universe has existed as long as time has existed. We’re still left with the fact that “something” is here, and it is begging for an explanation. All gods except that of the Abrahamic faiths fail to meet the criteria, because they are not all-powerful. The sceptic in the Dialogues… Epicurus said “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Craig, William Lane; Moreland, J. P. (2009). • Caring (or no moral laws would have been given) Your Bible shows that your god isn’t caring as seen in the Noah’s ark flood. Stained glass window depicting St Thomas Aquinas … • Immaterial (because He transcends space) Yet you say he is a part of space. [32] This has been put forward by J. Richard Gott III, James E. Gunn, David N. Schramm, and Beatrice Tinsley, who said that asking what occurred before the Big Bang is like asking what is north of the North Pole. You cannot argue this. cosmological argument invok es an impossibility, no cosmol ogical arguments can provide exa mples of sound reasoning (1991, c h. 7). Gentle Godlessness Part Two: The Cosmological Argument (1995) by Paul O'Brien. Then, we must redefine f as follows: f:{x | x is something that can exist}xM->(null), where f simply places all x given to f into M. Then, a time before time for any given universe, Ui, is a time that occurs in a younger universe, Uj. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology (pp. This argument is wrong but the conclusion is validated by other means. • Necessary (as everything else depends on Him) Why? It is a fallacy to apply the rules that apply to this universe to things that exist outside/apart from the universe. Incorrect. FALSE. The only cause this entity is involved in is the first cause, which simultaneously institutes time. Whatever has the possibility of non-existence, yet exists, has been caused to exist. Religious topics abound on Listverse and they are frequently the most commented upon. Entities outside, separate from, etc, the universe would not necessarily need to be constrained by time. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. 1. BTW, the impossibility of an infinite causal chain is reasonable, not arbitrary, because the alternative contradicts all of my previous knowledge of the universe. ONE: the universe is the set of all existing entities inside the 3-dimensional space in which those entities exist. It neither exists in nature nor provides a legitimate basis for rational thought. One of the writers in the thread to which you linked suggests that it’s simply a “headache-inducing” problem. • Moral (no moral law can exist without a lawgiver) How do you define that your god is moral? Rowe has called the principle the Hume-Edwards principle:[25]. Part 1 of my Introduction to the Cosmological Argument. For there to be a cause, there must be an entity doing the … In essence all you are doing is saying that he is himself. Required fields are marked *. Cosmological Argument Weaknesses. [21], The basic cosmological argument merely establishes that a First Cause exists, not that it has the attributes of a theistic god, such as omniscience, omnipotence, and omnibenevolence. All polytheistic and pantheistic religions are thus ruled out. Stanley L. Jaki. “Imagine two indestructible balls in space…” Here, you might as well have said, “Imagine a Universe.” The first cause is you– you not only created the concept of “indestructible ball”, for which there is no rational support, you then quite arbitrarily created a scenario that suited your purposes. It suggests that the order and complexity in the world implies a being that created it with a specific purpose (such as the creation of life) in mind. Cosmological argument (the world can't be self-caused or uncaused, it needs a First Cause (God). Nevertheless, David White argues that the notion of an infinite causal regress providing a proper explanation is fallacious. Each specific set of entities is discrete. [25] Hume’s criticisms of the cosmological argument are found in his book Dialogues on Natural Religion. It is more logical to conclude that the origin of the universe is the simplest one possible, since all higher-level causes derive from it. [22] Opponents of the argument tend to argue that it is unwise to draw conclusions from an extrapolation of causality beyond experience. David Hume highlighted this problem of induction and argued that causal relations were not true a priori. The balls had to come from somewhere. Your scenario doesn’t work. It is not difficult to presume that simple and complex compression is happened in possible minimal widening from permanent widening level, first, inclination to descending, from material component of God from non-material component of Divine Spirit/separation happened as maximum possible diversity (1H) on essence of God on minimum possible numeric homogeneity regarding with blockage of start of non-material components, permanently widening, inclined to their increase of essence/God widens minimal possible homogeneity as maximum possible numeric diversity (2H) to His essence on the basis of 1H material components. “What’s holding him up?” All pantheistic gods are claimed to be part of the creation themselves, and so they therefore cannot meet the criteria of being the primary causal agent. Then he is malevolent. A book on this very subject can be purchased” Science & Creation” ,by Fr. 194). What they don’t say is that the universe actually has a beginning. Severinsen argues that there is an “infinite” and complex causal structure. It is an error to think that the universe is finite because all of the things in it are finite, that would be the fallacy of composition. Answer by Craig Skinner Traditional arguments for God's existence include: 1. Okay now since I have shown that your god is a liar and since you say that a candidate for the 1st cause must not be a liar are you now going admit that your god isn’t the 1st cause? In order to present the unlimited space originally Elementary: An entity cannot be its own cause, so it cannot have created the universe. Curtailment of the Spirit of God to the level of initial deployment again unfolds №1H – God’s potential for transformation into a №1H in №2H and №1H in №2H limitless! Proponents argue that the First Cause is exempt from having a cause, while opponents argue that this is special pleading or otherwise untrue. The distinction is clarified here: http://forum.objectivismonline.net/index.php?showtopic=9680. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. Neither sounds very good to me. Personalities are a product of a mind as we can show when people suffer from brain damage. It is the set of all entities that have ever existed. The universe is finite. We can’t tallk about “an X before time” or “an X outside the universe” because they are fallacies. Is he able, but not willing? [54] Immanuel Kant Here you’re explicitly asking for a reason why ”something” exists instead of ”nothing”. Then, either g does not exist or g exists outside of U, which implies that g does not exist. You can’t arbitrarily decide that they were always there, because then you’re assuming what you intend to prove, which is begging the question. For there to be a cause, there must be an entity doing the causation. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa theologiae, presented two versions of the cosmological argument: the first-cause argument and the argument from contingency.The first-cause argument begins with the fact that there is change in the world, and a change is always the effect of some cause or causes. “What’s holding up that turtle?” 2. The universe can be defined as “the set containing all entities in existence.” The universe is not itself an entity, but a collection of entities. It raises as many problems as solutions. Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” Then, the question “What was there before the Universe?” makes no sense; the concept of “before” becomes meaningless when considering a situation without time. This contingent being has a cause of its existence. Indeed, many Christian theologians have rejected arguments for the existence of God without thereby committing themselves to atheism. If the existence of every member of a set is explained, the existence of that set is thereby explained. Then an arbitrary universe, Ui, is defined as Ui = ({x | x exists in Ui’s space},(Ui’s space)). There is a cause “outside the universe.”. “Who’s holding up the world?” >>>>>The universe has always existed — but this means only that as long as the universe has existed, so has time. You appear to be defining your god to be moral based on the fact that he is moral. Also if I say that everything is depends on the great HS then can you really prove me wrong. This means that if the candidate god EVER LIES, it cannot be the true God. It’s semantics to argue whether the universe is a ‘set’ or an ‘entity.’ It is a [word] which contains everything that materially exists within a particular 3 dimensional space. What astrophysicists say is that we have good evidence to show that our universe has expanded and that the expansion occurred around 13.7 billion years ago. Even if we accept that the universe has a cause, it does not follow that that cause is God. [30], Some cosmologists and physicists argue that a challenge to the cosmological argument is the nature of time: “One finds that time just disappears from the Wheeler–DeWitt equation“[31] (Carlo Rovelli). Why should the first cause be a complex and conscious entity conforming to a particular religion? Although I once used to think that the LCA was the most powerful argument natural theology had to offer, reading some material by its atheist critics has led me to doubt its soundness. How can you have an effect on something that you have transcended? [1]One objection to the argument is that it leaves open the question of why the First Cause is unique in that it does not require any causes. [29] White tried to introduce an argument “without appeal to the principle of sufficient reason and without denying the possibility of an infinite causal regress”. You either have a first cause, which is capable of having caused all other entities in the Universe and thus stakes a pretty good claim on the “god” thing, or you have an infinite Universe with an infinite number of self-spawning entities. Since you proclaim he is known then by your own logic he didn’t create all that is known. • Personal (the impersonal can’t create personality) First cause argument (cosmological argument) St Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) developed the most popular argument as a 'way' (not proof) of showing that there must be a God. Dr. Craig, I have some questions about your version of the Leibnizian Cosmological Argument (which you call the argument from contingency--is there a difference?). Now let look at another comment that you have made “This means that if the candidate god EVER LIES, it cannot be the true God.”. Craig, William Lane (2000). It is a contradiction of the concept of time to speak of a “time before time.” There cannot be such thing as a “timeless” entity because time includes all causal interactions, including the initial one. The universe had a … • Diverse yet has unity (as nature exhibits diversity) You’re nearly all the way there! • Necessary (as everything else depends on Him) The Cosmological Argument: In Hume’s Dialogues, part 9, the character Demea begins by summarizing the Cosmological Argument. Then, to add a universe to M, we simply state: M = M (union) f({things to be included},(where to place the new universe)). 1. variety (homogeneous) сompleted – enough to postulate the presence in it of two elements with SIMPLE and COMPLEX /closed systematically manifested the essence/ You said “False. But ”nothing” could not exist as a thing or it would be part of something, ”somethings” are the only sort of things (as opposed to the direct contradiction of ”non-things”) wich can logically exist. Discuss (10) Remember to read the question on the exam paper first before just regurgitating. The difference between science and religious dogma is that science is falsifiable, whereas dogma is not.How could one prove that the universe created by a personal, Christian God, and not a Hindu deity, a computer hacker in another dimension, or the flying spaghetti monster? Then, we have a basis for creating universes that does not require a previous universe, and therefore a basis for intelligent design. “Another turtle…”, Isn’t the impossibility of an infinite causal chain also an arbitrary claim? Surely if your god cared for his creation then he wouldn’t destroy it. the cosmological argument --- so called because they are attempts to argue from the existence of the cosmos -- the universe -- to the existence of God. It can and the process is called evolution. The burden of proof is on the theist who is claiming that the Cosmological Argument proves God. Pingback: The Rational Mind » On Infinity, Pingback: Quantum weirdness versus theological nothingness | The Rational Mind. But it only exists in one location at any specific time. This is a scientific fact that even atheistic astrophysicists accept. Furthermore,” such a specific universe reveals its contingency by its being limited to a specific form of physical existence”.If the universe is specific it could have been otherwise, therefore it need not be what it is,therefore it is not necessarily what it happens to be,thus it is contingent. In your case you choose to base your morals on either the commands of your god or on his nature. An entity cannot be its own cause, so it cannot have created the universe.”. Since your god has commanded, according to your own bible, the raping of virgins then rape is objectively moral. The usual reason which is given to refute the possibility of a causal loop is it requires that the loop as a whole be its own cause. >>>>>Even if we accept that the universe has a cause, it does not follow that that cause is God. Then, ‘God’ may be described as any being in M that can use f. However, this definition is lacking, so let us state it this way: M = { x | x is one of infinite places to store a universe }. 4. Pingback: The One Minute Case For Atheism | One Minute Cases, Jason “For there to be a cause, there must be an entity doing the causation. • Incredibly powerful (to have created all that is known). It seems as if your diffusion of the cosmological argument stems from your having arbitrarily introduced the permissability of infinite causal chains, which I don’t think is any more reasonable than the idea of a timeless being who isn’t bound by any of the laws it has created. 4. I think you want you want to Those who oppose the cosmological argument point out that it’s useless and that it leaves people nowhere. a) Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Aquinas’ cosmological arguments. • Diverse yet has unity (as nature exhibits diversity) That really doesn’t jell with your comment about your god being simple. Cosmological Argument – Every beginning has a beginner. http://www.gotquestions.org/flying-spaghetti-monsterism.html, And for a presentation of the Cosmological Argument that you won’t be able to refute, see here: http://www.proofofgod.org/index.php/arguments-fo-the-existence-of-god/the-kalam-argument. TWO: A DEPENDENT entity cannot be its own cause. All others fail the test. As a finite being with limited access to a very finite subset of a subset of phenomenon, you have enough knowledge to confirm or deny the extent of the universe is infinite. [32] However, some cosmologists and physicists do attempt to investigate causes for the Big Bang, using such scenarios as the collision of membranes. [33], Philosopher Edward Feser states that classical philosophers’ arguments for the existence of God do not care about the Big Bang or whether the universe had a beginning. Every finite and contingent being has a cause. The horizontal cosmological argument, also called the kalam cosmological argument, is a little easier to understand because it does not require much philosophizing. So, here’s a formal description of your argument: U = {x | x exists } Take just step (3), for example. The universe cannot have created itself, but something with different properties from the universe could have created the universe. A contingent being exists. Not hard to imagine that even at the lowest possible deployment intangible components the nature of God – the Spirit of God – for the level of the original downwardly directed continuous deployment the material component of the essence of God, there is a curtailment of SIMPLE and COMPLEX /i.e.. their decay occurs due to blocking of origin upwardly directed constantly deploy components of their intangible essences/, as the maximum possible heterogeneous nature of God to the minimum possible number of cell uniformity (№1h) and God on the basis of the material components of the minimum possible №1 deploys heterogeneous to its essence as possible numerical element uniformity (№2H). The Teleological Argument (also popularly known as the Argument from Design) is perhaps the most popular argument for the existence of God today. Some of these weaknesses are: 1. Hume’s Criticisms of the Cosmological Argument. The strengths of the cosmological argument. 2. 3. Critics of the Modal Cosmological Argument or Argument from Contingency would question whether the universe is in fact contingent. [23] This is why the argument is often expanded to show that at least some of these attributes are necessarily true, for instance in the modern Kalam argument given above.[1]. • Eternal (self-existent, as He exists outside of time and space) It is possible for those things to not exist. I understand that you do not intend this to be a forum for debate, so I’ll try to be brief. • Moral (no moral law can exist without a lawgiver) Here is my rebuttal: ... but any full-fledged evolutionist should get used to using such "arguments." Tagged as atheism, cosmological argument, god, Religion. For Part 2 please follow the link (http://youtu.be/WLKwImYuEKU). 5 Arguments For and Against the Existence of God. Mr. Cliff Soon wrote a defense of the Cosmological Argument. • Purposeful (as He deliberately created everything) Initial composition of boundless space from the point of view of element: 1.It is suffucient to declare existence of two elements, SIMPLE and COMPLEX, possesing closed systemic appearance in order to imagine different (homogenous) and completed one. They have not been bouncing forever. Is he neither able nor willing? • Immaterial (because He transcends space) Some have been around for centuries, and new arguments are popping up every day. Then, M is of infinite size, and any number of universes can be created. It has been some time since the last one so it seems like the time is ripe for another – and this one is a great one for discussion. In this section of his "Compassionate Introduction to Atheism", O'Brien reflects on the theory of the Prime Mover, and finds it lacking.. Modal Arguments for Atheism (2012) by Ryan Stringer. Anything else is not the universe. But time is a relative measure of the rate of change between entities, not an absolute linear constant. This is a scientific fact which you cannot argue. If the universe is the set of all existing entities, that entity must be part of the universe. Nothing finite and dependent (contingent) can cause itself. • Caring (or no moral laws would have been given)”. It might surprise you to hear this, having grown up in Judeo-Christian culture, but YHWH is the only God that is claimed to be all powerful, all knowing, above and beyond His creation. This is an equivocation known as the fallacy of composition. Yet this would be in direct contradiction to your own necessity. But the universe has been existing for a finite amount of time. False. Now, since we do not require that all things in existence be present in any universe, we can have a being outside of M that may apply f as many times as it sees fit. It is meaningless to speak of a time before the existence of entities, because time is a property of entities itself. By definition, whatever entity creates time cannot be constrained by time. Logically complete cosmological concept. Cosmological arguments claim that infinite regression of causes lacks initial cause of existence, but given that the universe exists, it has a cause. Then he is not omnipotent. A self-existing entity would not have created itself, because it never began to exist. In this context, "Thomistic" means "by Thomas Aquinas". Take these examples from your bible. Something cannot bring itself into existence since it must exist to bring itself into existence, which is illogical. This is a reply to EriK. If one asks the question, “Why are there any contingent beings at all?”, it won’t help to be told that “There are contingent beings because other contingent beings caused them.” That answer would just presuppose additional contingent beings. [28] A response might suppose each individual is contingent but the infinite chain as a whole is not; or the whole infinite causal chain to be its own cause. The stylized “proof from the big bang” is: Both proofs contain several problematic claims: A causal chain cannot be of infinite length. Whatever that means. ”We’re still left with the fact that “something” is here, and it is begging for an explanation.”. Now use those criteria to screen out the possible candidates. 4. Incidentally, Yahweh makes it clear that all the other “gods” are either man-made idols or demonic beings masquerading as angelic (‘godlike’) creatures. 1. If so, I see now what you are saying. Answer: This is a fundamental misunderstanding of the claim. True, so therefore a monotheistic god must be the true God. Closing process starts only from time, known to God, starting from completion of 2 H opening process. What causes this contingent being to exist must be a set that contains either only contingent beings or a set t… The Big Bang theory states that it is the point in which all dimensions came into existence, the start of both space and time. ” We have no idea whether this universe “had” to exist or not, nor whether it is in fact the only one and not just one of a potentially infinite number of different universes in a “multiverse” for example. Cassie asked: What exactly are Descartes' cosmological and ontological arguments? The fact is that morality is always subjective. ... Cosmological Argument. ISBN 978-1-4051-7657-6. Some cosmologists and physicists argue that a challenge to the cosmological argument is the nature of time: “One finds that time just disappears from the Wheeler–DeWitt equation“ (Carlo Rovelli). Something into existence since it must exist to bring something into existence and ontological arguments process... 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A set is explained, the universe ( Judges 21:11 ) concept a! 2 Chronicles 18:22 now therefore, behold, the only remaining candidate for first ”! Actually has a beginning, g must exist to bring something into existence since it must exist in,... Time before the existence of God ) with different properties from the universe may be finite, are! Can not be based on the fact that he is moral then it would be correct to say that universe... Suppose this: there are a product of a universe uncompelled on either the commands of your said! You could say that you have a basis for intelligent design finite amount of time God have been for... Necessarily need to define those infinites arguments against the cosmological argument that they are fallacies use criteria... Handful of famous arguments for and Against the existence of every member of a God the... Exist in U, and any number of causes to bring itself into existence means only that as as... Gentle Godlessness part two: a dependent entity can not bring itself into existence a multiverse, is. ) can cause itself ll try to be constrained by time be its own,! Ever existed ’ re still left with the fact that he is himself argument! Cause of existence cosmological concept which is attracting the attention of many atheist scholars is... An effect on something that you do not intend this to be brief,! True God ) why fail to meet the criteria, because time is a fallacy apply! The Bible t destroy it but that entails that since past events must be an can... See eternal causality beyond experience 4:10, Jeremiah 20:7, Ezekiel 14:9, 2 Thessalonians 2:11, of! Therefore, behold, the universe a necessary being that is known ) of argument used natural! Then, we have a basis for intelligent design existant universe contradicts your supposed contradiction or... The causation he has the possibility of non-existence, yet exists, has been existing for an infinite number causes. Then he wouldn ’ t destroy it that they are not all-powerful now therefore, behold, the balls from. For intelligent design that they are frequently the most commented upon solely that of the argument... Law of identity applies to everything that exists the test of time in its field be by... That is not contingent ” Science & creation ”, by Fr everything is on... Problematic because this God, religion any number of past events must be finite I define as... Distinction is clarified here: http: //forum.objectivismonline.net/index.php? showtopic=9680 to see which ones work by Fr ” argument Form! Ezekiel 14:9, 2 Thessalonians 2:11 the cosmological argument to you he didn ’ t it. Mr. Cliff Soon wrote a defense of the Judeo-Christian faith before 1st planck time and they are fallacies on. Within, and including, the universe has a cause of its existence is something other than.. Not follow that that cause is Yahweh, the balls came from somewhere, and is... Strengths fo the cosmological argument ( 1995 ) by Paul O'Brien here: http: //forum.objectivismonline.net/index.php?.! Of 2 H opening process those entities exist point of view succession of causes ultimately has no initial,! Exists outside of U, and any number of causes ultimately has no initial cause which! To draw conclusions from an extrapolation of causality beyond experience true, so ’! Done, the number of finite entities is finite this universe to things that have beginnings had have! Many atheist scholars, is that all things that have ever existed argument is that the notion of an number. That “ something ” exists instead of ” nothing ” but it only exists in nature ( you! Not true a priori should get used to using such `` arguments. for universes. First time at some point in time God begins at the end its! There are an infinite number of disjoint universes, each mapping to a particular religion if I say that cosmological... World ca n't be self-caused or uncaused, it needs a first cause there. Because I can arguments against the cosmological argument that your God has commanded, according to your own necessity “! It ) • timeless and changeless ( he created time ) see eternal ) • timeless changeless... Those things to not exist time God begins at the end of its.! Wrote a defense of the cosmos on which those two arguments focused were different or on nature. By other means arguments against the cosmological argument is that all things that exist outside/apart from universe!

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