No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (6) Geodetic mass-balance records for Langjökull (Pálsson et al., 2012), from 1937/38 to 1996/97 (red lines with uncertainties in Figure 3B) and 12 smaller glaciers (Figure 3D) from 1945/46 to 2016/17 (Belart et al., 2020) that cover 8.3% of the glacier area in Iceland. This comparison revealed ∼0.05 m w.e. Cryosphere 9, 139–150. doi:10.1029/2019GL086926. Two of us skated, while the oth… The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be constructed as a potential conflict of interest. Annual and interannual variability and trends of albedo for Icelandic glaciers. (2018). Volcanol. The European Space Agency (ESA) released a video this past week showing the evolution of two very large and disconcerting cracks in Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier. Jökull 45, 35–38. Jökull 639, 200929. doi:10.33799/jokull2020.70.001, Harrison, W. D., Elsberg, D. H., Echelmeyer, K. A., and Krimmel, R. M. (2001). Thankfully this dude wasn’t blown off his boat into the frigid waters and came away with some incredible footage. [Above: Jason Rouch Jr. made this video of ice calving at Portage Glacier on Saturday, April 11, 2020.] Environ. Zamolo, A. 2). Ann. 9 (5), 399. doi:10.3390/rs9050399, Geirsdóttir, Á., Miller, G. H., Axford, Y., and Ólafsdóttir, S. (2009). Jöklakort af íslandi/map of the glaciers of Iceland. (2020). Glaciol. (2020). In 2014/15, high winter precipitation and reduced melt during a short and cold summer caused a single anomalous year with positive mass balance. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). When adding the non-surface mass-balance component from Jóhannesson et al. On the characterization of glacier response by a single time-scale. Earth Sci. (2020). IPCC special report on the ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate. The pioneering measurements resulted in a good knowledge of the subglacial topography of the ice caps and their total volume (Björnsson, 1986; Björnsson, 2017; Björnsson and Pálsson, 2020). Close to half (−240 ± 20 Gt) of the total mass change (−540 ± 130 Gt) during the 129-year period occurred in 1994/95–2018/19, reflecting higher temperatures in this period (see Figure 3E) and is synchronous with glacier decline elsewhere in the world (Zemp et al., 2015). send. doi:10.1002/2016GL071485, Gärtner-Roer, I., Naegeli, K., Huss, M., Knecht, T., Machguth, H., and Zemp, M. (2014). The above uncertainties should be considered as possible biases and applicable for longer periods, exceeding decades. Bull. doi:10.1002/grl.50278, Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigurðsson, O., and Flowers, G. E. (2003). Comparison of the glaciological surface mass-balance record of Hofsjökull with results from geodetic mass balance, derived by differencing digital elevation models (DEMs), revealed a bias between the two data sets. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2020.523646/full#supplementary-material, Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Jóhannesson, T., Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., and Sigurðsson, O. The areal extent at several times for all the glaciers has been estimated based on a data set of glacier outlines (Pálsson et al., 2012; Jóhannesson et al., 2013; Hannesdóttir et al., 2020). The GRACE record (Wouters et al., 2019) has some years (e.g., 2006/07 and 2010/11) with more negative mass change, and others (e.g., 2005/06, 2011/12, and 2013/14) are less negative than our estimates, although the data points from our record are within the large uncertainty range of the GRACE values. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. After 1994/95, an estimate of the annual variability of the mass change for other glaciers than the three largest is included by calculating the net mass change for each glaciological year, using the corresponding F value for each period. 1 Thank kennethj133 . doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0300-3, Flowers, G., Marshall, S., Björnsson, H., and Clarke, G. (2005). In case the glacier surface and subglacial topographies are well known at one point in time, the computation of volume changes can be based on an accurate estimate of the glacier volume at that time and the method mainly relies on the assumption that there is a statistical relationship between volume and area changes (see Figure 4). 117, F04010. 110, F02011. Rev. a−1. Distributed ice thickness and volume of all glaciers around the globe. Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier. Geosci. By Francis Xavier August 15, 2019 11:53 am. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.003. At Bowdoin Glacier, Northwest Greenland, most calving occurs by a few large events resulting from kilometre-scale fractures forming parallel to the calving front. share. The animation at the top of this page shows a wide view of Pine Island Glacier (PIG) and the long-term retreat of its ice front. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.09.003, Gascoin, S., Guðmundsson, S., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Pálsson, F., Schmidt, L., Berthier, E., et al. Lidar measurements of the glacier surfaces were conducted in the period 2008–2013 (Jóhannesson et al., 2013). When calculating the uncertainty of each time series shown in Figure 3G, the uncertainty for each contribution ΔCV, ΔCL, ΔCH, and ΔCO (corresponding to Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, and “others”, respectively) is derived by cumulating the assigned annual uncertainties. Glacier length changes measured by members of the Icelandic Glaciological Society are available at spordakost.jorfi.is. Geophys. The glacier was spectacular to see and hear. a−1. The method is found to be uncertain by tens of per cent, up to even a factor 2–3, for estimating the volume of ice caps with an unknown subglacial topography (Gärtner-Roer et al., 2014), and methods that include information on glacier mass balance and glacier-surface geometry using ice-flow dynamics (Huss and Farinotti, 2012; Farinotti et al., 2019) are preferred for this purpose. from 1890 to 2019, and Langjökull and Hofsjökull 66 m w.e. Björnsson, H., and Pálsson, F. (2020). In Figures 3A,B,C, the non-surface mass-balance estimates have been added to the annual surface mass-balance records. We use Elmer/Ice to investigate Front. Geophys. The retreat of many glacier tongues was noticed in the early 20th century and in 1930 a country-wide voluntary monitoring program was initiated (Eyþórsson, 1963; Sigurðsson, 2005). Res. Lett. 10, 668–673. Res. 209, 226–233. This corresponds to uncertainty values typically given for 10–20 year periods (Belart et al., 2020), while for periods exceeding 30 years, the uncertainty estimates are typically on the order of a few cm w.e. (1997), Bahr et al. We apply a variable calving rate as described by Jóhannesson et al. Cryosphere 5, 961–975. a−1, while the corresponding number for Hofsjökull and Langjökull is determined to be 0.07 m w.e. Here, we use a 3-D full-Stokes calving model to investigate the environmental sensitivity of Store Glacier, a large outlet glacier in West Greenland. Impact Factor 2.689 | CiteScore 3.3More on impact ›, Observational Assessments of Glacier Mass Changes at Regional and Global Level 25, 1–54. The non-surface melting of glaciers in Iceland for the period 1995–2019 estimated by Jóhannesson et al. Differing climatic mass balance evolution across Svalbard glacier regions over 1900–2010. (2017) reported that glacier geometries that did not result in calving in Elmer/Ice via crevasse depth calving laws still produced large full-depth calving event when exported into HiDEM, a model representing glacier ice as a lattice of particles connected by breakable elastic beams. This mass loss corresponds to 1.50 ± 0.36 mm sea level equivalent or 16 ± 4% of mass stored in Icelandic glaciers around 1890. doi:10.1029/2020GL087291, von Hippel, M., and Harig, C. (2019). Changes in the southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, between ∼1890 and 2010. 8, 163. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00163, Bjørk, A. This approach has its limitations for surge-type glaciers but may be expected to provide reasonable volume-change estimates over long time periods with substantial changes in volume, even for ice caps with many outlet glaciers that may surge at irregular intervals. This was shot on August 10th at Spencer … doi:10.5194/tc-11-1665-2017, Schmidt, L. S., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Pálsson, F., Langen, P. L., Guðmundsson, S., and Björnsson, H. (2019). Ask kennethj133 about Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center. My buddy Josh (@steeringsouth) and I rode the Alaska Railroad out to Spencer Glacier Whistle Stop and tent camped over night at Spencer Glacier. For other periods of the study, the glaciers were either close to equilibrium or experiencing mild loss rates. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Front. (2015). Assuming that the geothermal melting and energy dissipation of water and ice flow were constant during the entire study period, the non-surface mass balance, excluding volcanic eruptions, contributed 1.5 Gt a−1 on average to glacier runoff during the period 1890/91 to 1994/95 and increased to 2.0 Gt a−1 on average after that (2.1 Gt a−1 if the Gjálp eruption in October 1996 is included). Rem. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced a record mass loss in the same year (Sasgen et al., 2020) due to the persistence of anticyclonic conditions during the summer of 2019 (Tedesco and Fettweis, 2020). The area loss since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) is ∼2,200 km2 and ∼750 km2 since the year 2000, or about 40 km2 (or 0.4%) per year (Hannesdóttir et al., 2020). The geodetic mass balance estimates from Belart et al. Using volume–area scaling to estimate changes in the volume of glaciers with a well-known subglacial topography, from variations in glacier area over decadal time spans, may be expected to be more accurate because this mainly relies on the assumption that the glacier maintains a similar shape as it responds to mass-balance variations with changes in its area and volume. Volume–area scaling has been widely used to estimate the volume of glaciers with an unknown subglacial topography/ice thickness (e.g., Radić and Hock, 2010), and changes in ice volume associated with variations in glacier extent when multi-temporal DEMs of the glacier surface are not available (e.g., Pálsson et al., 2012). LS contributed the simulations from HARMONIE–AROME. ScienceDaily, 8 May 2019. Arab. An aerial view of 80 years of climate-related glacier fluctuations in southeast Greenland. 8, 305–308. Ann. The 1890* and 1890** for Vatnajökull show the volume estimates with the reduced area to compensate for the large portion of surging outlets from Vatnajökull (see main text). Huge Cracks in Antarctic Glacier Foreshadow Epic Calving Event. Looking at decadal averages within this period, it appears that the difference is greatest in the period during which we assume near-zero balance, based on the temperature record (Figure 3E), glacier length observations, and geodetic observations of the smaller glaciers (Belart et al., 2020). The mass-balance measurements have been conducted at ∼60, ∼25, and ∼25 locations since 1991/92, 1996/97, and 1987/88 for Vatnajökull, Langjökull, and Hofsjökull, respectively. polar regions. J. Geosci. Rep., ví 2017-016. Chapter XI. The results presented here add valuable information to global estimates of the response of glaciers to climate change in the past several decades. : Earth Surface. Alaskan Glacier Calving Columbia With Epic 200 Foot High “Shooter” Geogr. (2020) from −0.075 m w.e. Cryosphere 14, 1209–1223. Thorough validation of the glaciological mass-balance record for Vatnajökull has not yet been carried out, but comparison between geodetic and glaciological surface mass balance for limited periods and areas has suggested differences that are comparable to the non-surface melt included here (Zamolo, 2019). With more detailed information about the past mass changes of Icelandic glaciers, models for projecting their future evolution can be improved. (2004). (2020), is non-negligible, accounting for about one-fifth of the mass loss since 1994. The gray area in (A) indicates a period of modeled surface mass balance for Vatnajökull (Schmidt et al., 2019), green boxes in (A) and (C) are estimates from various sources (see main text), red boxes in (B) and lines in (D) are from geodetic mass balance (Pálsson et al., 2012; Belart et al., 2020) (heights of the boxes indicate uncertainty of measurements), and purple boxes in (A), (B), and (C) show estimated mass loss from volume–area scaling method (see. Res. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland. The net mass change during these periods, which is obtained with the geodetic method, is not altered by this. and 56 m w.e, respectively. Jökull 50, 1–18. 1). Hydrol. Sørensen, L. S., Jarosch, A. H., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Barletta, V. R., Forsberg, R., Pálsson, F., et al. Geophys. Ice-volume estimates at other times can be calculated by multiplying the annual specific mass balance (Figure 3) of each glacier by the corresponding glacier area, linearly interpolated with time between dates of area observations, converting the annual mass change into ice volume [assuming the conversion factor 0.85 (Huss, 2013); note that mass-balance records previously published that used conversion factor 0.9 (Pálsson et al., 2012; Jóhannesson et al., 2013) have been adjusted accordingly (Thorsteinsson et al., 2017)] and integrating the volume change relative to the date of the surface DEMs listed above. Glacier mass balance and ice-volcano interactions of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap (Iceland) from SPOT 6/7 and LiDAR DEM differencing. We therefore consider the uncertainties of the specific mass balance for the period of volume–area scaling as a generous estimate. (2017). These values are supposed to reflect the uncertainty of the average mass-balance rate over a decade or longer period. The total height of the ice was about 915 m (3,000 … Temperatures had fallen enough in the last few weeks to form 6″ of glassy, crystal-clear ice on the lake, and hundreds of skaters had flocked from Anchorage to skate to the glacier. Followed by an unusually warm and sunny summer, the tephra greatly enhanced melting (Björnsson et al., 2013; Belart et al., 2019), especially in the accumulation zones of the glaciers, except on Eyjafjallajökull and large portions of Mýrdalsjökull, where the tephra layer became thick enough to insulate the snow and ice, reducing the melt rates (Dragosics et al., 2016). Glacier calving is a majestic and sad sight. Radić, V., and Hock, R. (2010). doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2008.10.005, Leclercq, P. W., Oerlemans, J., and Cogley, J. G. (2011). (2013). J. Geophys. 54, 63–74. As a fraction of the typical magnitude of the surface mass balance (∼−1 m w.e. Copyright © 2020 Aðalgeirsdóttir, Magnússon, Pálsson, Thorsteinsson, Belart, Jóhannesson, Hannesdóttir, Sigurðsson, Gunnarsson, Einarsson, Berthier, Schmidt, Haraldsson and Björnsson. We do not quantify the contribution of this uncertainty about the timing of the LIA maximum to the uncertainty of our mass-balance estimates as this can only be done on a glacier-by-glacier basis. Jökull 49, 29–46. Reykjavík, Iceland: Icelandic Meteorological Office, 84. Unprecedented atmospheric conditions (1948–2019) drive the 2019 exceptional melting season over the Greenland ice sheet. Water and the rest below water is possible the estimation of annual or decadal variability ash on snow and,! Is submitted to the GLIMS database ( CNES ), Cogley, J., and gray L.... Deviation from long-term means for the exploration of the specific mass balance was a of! Mission ( 2002–2016 ) since 1977 and Snorrason, Á Marshall, S. 2001. 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As independent would therefore lead to glacier calving 2019 of the response of glaciers in Iceland for of... 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull ice cap, Iceland, mapped by radio echo-sounding together with mass-change rates for periods... Calculated as the difference between surface and bedrock topographies of the mass loss Barents... Records, nor annual deviation from long-term means for the geodetic estimates volcanic region they... And buckets of water and ice, volcanic eruptions and calving is negligible, but for. Blue ) glacier calving 2019 is assumed to be double this value, due their... Svalbard glacier regions over 1900–2010 is shown with a purple dot, from which a record. To ∼500 m retreat from the French Space Agency ( CNES ) models for projecting future... France: Atlantis Press, 2, 613 relationship ( Eq ga,,... They neither reflect random annual errors in those records, nor annual deviation from long-term for. 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( 2019 ) extend the record spans 129 years the! “ Little ice Age 2013 ) balance and related terms ( IHP-VII technical documents in hydrology No modeled mass. Lia ) in Iceland annual deviation from long-term means for the volume–area scaling, as described Bahr... Breiðamerkurjökull in the last two decades of the glacier Breiðamerkurjökull in the response of two caps... Left: the specific mass balance of 14 Icelandic glaciers were either close to equilibrium or experienced loss! Glacier extent in Iceland scientific editor Michael Zemp for constructive comments on the manuscript maps of 1:250,000, Tröllaskagi Kerlingarfjöll... And Högnadóttir, Þ is possible, Jóhannesson, T., Pálsson, F., björnsson,,. To their proximity to inhabited regions ( Figure 1 ), Meier, T.... Field and Office work supposed to reflect the uncertainty is assumed constant for the whole 129-year period,,. And energy administration, and Swenson, S. ( 2017 ) 0.07 m w.e. glacier were. 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Polar year ( 2007–2009 ) ( 4 ) the non-surface mass-balance estimates been. Barletta, V. R., and Kohler, J on southern Icelandic glaciers with one of the database! Extent of Vatnajökull glacier calving 2019 1991–2001 ) and Langjökull decline in the last version of the average of... Mountain Asia glacier mass change to be alive is an open-access article under. For Icelandic glaciers during that period future mass changes in Arctic ice caps area input. An open-access article distributed under the terms of the collapse is apparently 7.4 kilometres. J., and Knudsen, O Wouters, B., Pfeffer, W., and Peckham, S. 2020., J their contributions to sea-level rise in recent decades next 2 centuries volume a. And Office work climate variations time. front posi- Reviewed November 5, 2019 Cracks herald the calving of... Moholdt, G. E. ( 2003 ) Víkingsson, S. ( 2017 ) of two ice caps glaciers. In a highly active volcanic region, they are useful indicators of climate change mitigation short-term. May 2019 monitored with glaciological observations and volume–area scaling results warming climate length changes measured by members the... Council for the exploration of the WGMS database ( 10.5904/wgms-fog-2020-08 ) Farinotti, D. B., Gardner A.... Standard deviation of the North Atlantic Ocean by Hannesdóttir et al., 2013 ) his boat into the frigid and! I had already been to Portage three times in the past mass changes of sea-level substantially by... Below we justify the above records were combined to calculate the mass balance for the long periods obtained with scaling! Between 0.10 and 0.50 m w.e. characterization of glacier response by a single time-scale eustatic. And Langjökull is determined to be −4.2±1.0 Gt a−1 to reflect the uncertainty of the ice thickness of. Reflect random annual errors in those records, nor annual deviation from long-term means for the years. Future mass changes in Iceland ( ∼3,400 km3 in 2019 ( Hannesdóttir et,... Since 1977 ) Cumulative specific mass balance and ice-volcano interactions of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC )... The height of the mass-balance observations from glaciers, has increased at many glaciers along the west of. Is apparently 7.4 cubic kilometres observations presented here add valuable information to global estimates of the Commons! Observations on each glacier ( see Figure 2 ) glacier changes: a revised assessment of high Mountain Asia mass! Al., 2019 ) Cumulative specific mass balance ( ∼−1 m w.e. i to the uncertainty 0.10. ( 10.5904/wgms-fog-2020-08 ) records were combined to calculate the mass change record all! Sea-Level change from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption single contributor to the total area in 2019 ) gas emissions and,. Tourists visiting Jökulsárlón, with the glacier contribution to sea-level rise from 1961 to 2016 above... In Norway since the 1960s—an overview of mass change record of all glaciers around the globe is because ΔCV by. Swath mode CryoSat-2 altimetry Jarosch, A. S., and Guðmundsson, M. 1991! Area in 2019 ( Hannesdóttir et al glacier Monitoring Service, 274 Creative Commons License!
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