corn sap beetle

It also spreads toxic fungi to crops like field corn. (Optional) Check out the video and learn more. Send Explanation. Damage Symptoms: Beetles feed on the edges of leaves and stems, producing notched holes in the leaves. If sap beetles are still present after harvest, they can be managed as it is going into storage. We plant corn every year in our garden in Fleming CO. They feed mainly on decaying vegetable matter, over-ripe fruit, and sap.Sap beetles coexist with fungi species and live in habitats of coniferous trees. Sap Beetles are present now, notably in fields and gardens with overripe or damaged crops. We’ve seen experiences a fair bit of earworm injury this year on hybrids with dual-protein Bt’s. Adult body length 1.6-1.8mm; head and pronotum evenly reddish brown, sometimes with lighter spot in centre of pronotum, elytra with background lighter than pronotum, dark areas sometimes adjacent to scutellum, covered dorsally with conspicuous pale setae; lateral of prosternum with punctrures deeply impressed, interspaces shining. The eggs, which are laid singly, are white and slender, resembling a house fly egg. Can be a problem in both processed and market corn, because larvae feed within the ear and damage is not always visible until after husking. May have correlation with volatiles expressed by the plant after attack by corn earworm, Common in stored grains and nuts; feces can contaminate dried fruits, Larvae develop for ~ 3 weeks then pupate in the soil, adults can live up to 300 days, 1 generation/year, NOTE: Dusky sap beetles can also cause damage in. It is an agricultural pest of corn and tomato. Finding the product may be tricky, so be sure to work with your distributor if you think you might have a problem. Based in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, we reach millions of Note that this information is from Dr. Mike Toews at University of Georgia. The last 2 years these tiny black beetles just devour the silk on the ear of corn, then between the beetle and the worm, they will eat a whole ear of corn! and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. The longer corn sits in the field, the more it is exposed to sap beetle feeding. Incidence: May, on seedling corn. And “well, maybe I was a little bit… ‘concerned'” [obscure movie quote, congrats if you know it ;)]. With the proper steps and products, the ears of corn will be protected and develop into a healthy and delicious crop. To distinguish the dried fruit and corn sap beetles from other The site may not look or function as expected. Sap beetles are dark gray or brown, 3-4 mm long, and oblong to oval in shape.5 Antennae have easily distinguishable clubbed ends. They feed on ripening pollen and chew tassels. The corn (dusky) sap beetle (Carpophilus dimidiatus) is the most common of several species of small, flat, brown and black sap beetles that are present in most corn fields. Want to see which lists are available? Sap beetles of agricultural importance such as the dusky sap beetle, corn sap beetles (Carpophilus spp. The sap beetles, also known as Nitidulidae, are a family of beetles.. They are attracted to earworm damaged corn and prefer it to undamaged ears.5. Corn sap beetle definition is - a small brown beetle (Carpophilus dimidiatus) with truncate wing covers that is related to the dried-fruit beetle, that is sometimes a destructive pest of sweet corn, and that feeds on decaying fruits and vegetation and sometimes swarms in rice mills. As the auger delivers the seed up to the bin, it will mix the material onto the seed. To prevent, plant resistant varieties and clean up all crop residues. They range between 1/8 and 1/4 in. Sampling Scheme: None available. These insects feed on fruits and vegetables in the garden such as corn, tomatoes, raspberries, strawberries and muskmelons. Corn sap beetles can be black or brown and sometimes have orange spots. Consider separating corn harvested from field edges from that in the interior. This is something that is probably NOT a concern of for yield from the earworm side, but sap beetles can move in behind earworm injury and feed on the injured kernels, causing some yield loss and increasing the risk for aflatoxin contamination. Dusky sap beetles are small, about 3/16 inch long. Identify the problem. Beetles appear at harvest and feed on damaged, overripe, or decomposing fruits and vegetables. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. The wing covers do not extend over the entire abdomen. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Sap beetles are attracted to sweet corn as it tassels. These pest species generally feed on fruits and other plant parts that are ripening or decomposing. Optimum Intrasect, Genuity VT Double PRO, and SmartStax are usually good choices except under high insect pressure. Sweet corn producers usually treat at this time to prevent infestation by corn earworm and other caterpillar pests, thereby suppressing sap beetles also (Harrison, 1962). Actellic at the highest labeled rate can be effective and long lasting. The wing covers are shorter than is typical for most beetles and do not extend to cover the tip of the abdomen. 2 Plant a variety of sweet corn that will grow with a tightly closed husk. All three of these products experienced earworm control problems in areas of our state during 2015, but looked very good in other areas. Later they move to leaf axils where pollen has fallen and collected. The corn sap beetle is a tiny brown beetle found in the ears of corn that have been damaged by earworm or corn borer. Larvae are whitish and up to 1/4 inch long. Beetles and larvae can cause direct and indirect damage by feeding on silks and fallen pollen from tassels. The corn sap beetle and dried fruit beetle can be found in a wide variety of ripe and decomposing fruit in the field and is a serious pest of dried fruit. Sweet corn can be infested with wireworms, European corn borers, flea beetles, fall armyworms, corn earworms, Japanese beetles and sap beetles. So, when i saw this beetle-looking-larvae feeding ON developing kernels this week, I was intrigued and confused. The adult corn sap beetle is about 1/8 inch long, ranging from red-tinged black to brown-yellow. They are small (2–6 mm) ovoid, usually dull-coloured beetles, with knobbed antennae.Some have red or yellow spots or bands. Description. I’ve also received some reports of fall amryworm injury, with sap beetles causing the same problems. NC State University Entomology extension faculty and staff work with county field faculty, growers, consultants, and the public across the state in solving insect problems through research based and environmentally sound practices. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Cultural Techniques. These scavenger beetles feed on developing, ripe or overripe produce as well as plant sap exuding from wounds and fungi. Earworms typically feed at the tip of the ear, whereas fall armyworms will feed throughout the ear and often leave holes that are drilled into the cob and dry powdery residue reminiscent of powdered milk. Scouting: Cultural practices affect dusky sap beetle damage. 5. Especially melons, sweet corn, tomatoes, and occasionally other vegetables. Subscribe By Email chevron_right. They invade corn borer tunnels and feed on frass (sawdust-like insect waste). They are small beetles present in many crops, including corn and tomatoes.The insects bore into ripe or damaged fruits and their larvae live inside. "It can be as economically important as corn earworms and corn borers in some areas of the Corn Belt." Aethina tumida, the small hive beetle, is another example. Sap beetles are considered minor pests of field and sweet corn and strawberries in Florida. Protect corn as it enters the bin. They invade plants when tassels begin to show, feed on green silks, and feed on kernels when the silks begin to brown. 2012 PHII. Learn how to control Corn Sap Beetles with these easy to use products! See management guidelines for stink bugs in corn. The specimen I found near Scio is probably Carpophilus lugubris, a N. American native and known pest of sweet corn. Again, these are secondary feeders that often follow worms. Insects that attack corn include corn earworm, corn borer, corn sap beetle, cinch bugs worms, and moths. N.C. Sap beetles are a common pest problem in strawberries, raspberries, tomatoes, sweet corn and other garden fruits and vegetables. Corn worms and sap beetle. Sap Beetles in Corn. Malathion is ineffective. For many species, including western corn rootworm, wireworms, and white grubs, the common name refers to the immature stage that attacks corn roots underground. The dusky sap beetle is similar in appearance except slightly larger, about 1/6 inch long, and dull black. Asked September 10, 2015, 11:35 PM EDT. 4. Southern Corn Leaf Beetle Description: Adult beetles are about 3/16 of an inch long with a grayish or brownish color pattern. When people talk about beetle pests in corn, they’re usually referring to damage that occurs below the soil level. Prevent these insects from damaging your crop by keeping them from reaching the sweet kernels developing inside each ear. Posted on 14-August, 2020 by greenje. The large irregular holes and decay spread from fruit to fruit and can cause a large amount of produce to be unusable. Larvae are 1/4 in. Both species have characteristic short wing covers and club-shaped antennae . What made it so helpful? (corn-sap beetle) Toolbox. (corn sap beetle) Toolbox. Their eggs are difficult to see because the female lays them inside the plant. Sweet Corn Dusky Sap Beetle Whitney S. Cranshaw Dusky Sap Beetle Identification (and life cycle/seasonal history) Dusky sap beetle (DSB) is a dark gray beetle, about 3/16" in length. Corn Sap Beetles. Sap beetles, also referred to as picnic beetles, become a nuisance in gardens during late summer (June-September). A long lived species, the dusky sap beetle can live as an adult for up to 300 days. The longer corn sits in the field, the more it is exposed to sap beetle feeding. 3. "The sap beetle can be a major sweet corn pest," says Dowd. Adult beetles are first noticed at about the time tassels appear on the earliest sweet corn. Adjust your harvest. Buy an appropriate hybrid for 2016. Sanitation.Field sanitation appears to be an important means of control. Because of this, they are often called fungus or pollen beetles (e.g. It appears you don't have javascript enabled. Removing all stalks and roots can also prevent an outbreak of sap beetles the following year. Feeding habits vary, but adults tend to feed on fresh or decaying organic matter. Choosing the best insecticide for your crop will help to decrease damage from these pests. A number of folks are concerned about sap beetle injury this year. Centynal is an alternative product that can be used, but it is not as effective as Actellic. The corn sap beetle (2-3.5 mm (1/8 to 1/4 inch)) can be distinguished from the dried fruit beetle by the absence of the yellow-brown spots on the wing covers. You will automatically get notified when we post news and tag it, Extension Specialist (Household & Structural Entomology), N.C. For many species, including western corn rootworm, wireworms, and white grubs, the common name refers to the immature stage that attacks corn roots underground. Meligethes aeneus in brassica, canola, and clover production). The beetles are attracted to the scent of damaged corn, so preventing feeding by other pests helps keep them at bay. This short video describes Japanese Beetle damage on soybean, and how to tell Japanese Beetle from similar beetles. (6.3 mm) long and whitish-yellow or pink in color. Stink bugs can also cause the cob to become exposed and probably increase the chances for sap beetle problems (although this have never been shown). (3.1 and 6.3 mm) in length. The best choices to manage these pests are Agrisure Viptera (3110, 3111, 3220) and Optimum Leptera. The goal is to contact every single seed with the material. That means that they feed once something else has already damaged the kernels. What can be done? Corn Sap Beetles are small, black beetles that spawn maggot-like larvae that eat into the kernels of roasting corn. What separates NC State University from other schools? JetStream Fogging Insecticide. Picnic beetles are small, up to ¼” long, brown or black oval-shaped insects that have a knob on the end of each antenna. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. North Carolina citizens each year through local centers in the state's 100 counties Carpophilus lugubris, commonly known as the dusky sap beetle is a species of beetle in the genus Carpophilus. or when harvest operations leave lower ears – can become a reservoir. NC State Extension is the largest outreach program at NC State University. The dried fruit beetle can also be found on stored corn, cornmeal, wheat, oats, rice, beans, nuts, peanuts, cottonseed, copra, spices, drugs, bread, sugar, and honey. 2. ), strawberry sap beetle (Stelidota geminata), and a picnic beetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus) have become abundant coincident with the expansion in production of suitable crop hosts in Florida. When people talk about beetle pests in corn, they’re usually referring to damage that occurs below the soil level. Growing sweet corn in a home garden is a hobby that many people enjoy during the summer months. The black, quarter-inch-long adults feed on corn plant residues left in the field after harvest, Dowd explains. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. Cooperative Extension has offices in every county, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Current Western NC Orchard Insect Populations, Biological Control of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Spotted-Wing Drosophila Research and Extension Priorities, 2012, Spotted-Wing Drosophila Needs Assessment, 2011, Insect Management on Fruiting Vegetables in North Carolina, Insect Management on Cucurbit Vegetables in North Carolina, Benefits of Applying Insecticides With Drip Chemigation, Biological Control With Predators and Parasitoids, Biological Control of Spider Mites in Tomatoes, Managing insect pests in organically certified corn, Powderpost Beetles and Wood-Inhabiting Fungi, management guidelines for stink bugs in corn, Pests of Sweet Corn — Insect and Related Pests of Vegetables, Enjoy the Taste of Fresh Corn This Summer, Caterpillars Found on Flowers and Foliage — Insect and Related Pests of Flowers and Foliage Plants, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research & Extension Center, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. Sap beetles have demonstrated a wide range of feeding habits with the majority of the group being primarily saprophagous and mycetophagous (Parsons 1943). Since sap beetle is a secondary pest, you can avoid problems by hybrid choice. Turn up the blower on the combine to get rid of out insect-damaged kernels and their associated mess. However high population levels may cause considerable damage resulting in the spread of mycotoxin producing fungi which warrants their control. Sap beetles of agricultural importance such as the dusky sap beetle, corn sap beetle, and strawberry sap beetle have increased in number with the expansion in production of suitable crop hosts in Florida. Turn up the blower on the combine to get rid of out insect-damaged kernels and their associated mess. Sap beetles are secondary pests. E. luteolus although a pest of dri… Damaged, diseased and overripe fruits and vegetables should be remove… Finally, since some hybrids have a characteristic where the cob tip is exposed out of the husk, chose one where the tip is the least exposed. Adults are very small and less than 5 mm long. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. In Utah, common, common species include the Corn Sap Beetle (Carpophilus dimidatus), Dusky Sap Beetle (Carpophilus lugubris), and Picnic Beetle (Glischrochilus quadrisgnatus). Sap beetles hollow out kernels, rather than completely consuming the kernels. 1. As a result, ears become contaminated with larvae. They are usually covered with soil particles, giving them a dusty appearance. Aim to deliver 5 gallons of material for every 1,000 bushels of grain. Beetles are most attracted to ears damaged by rodents, birds, deer, etc. In North Carolina, early planted corn is more heavily infested than late planted corn. Sap beetles are extremely dangerous pests of commercial and home fruit crops. Datasheet. They are gray to black in color and oblong in shape. Carpophilus obsoletus (corn sap beetle) Index. The corn sap beetle is a tiny brown beetle found in the ears of corn that have been damaged by earworm or corn borer. Recent research out of Georgia shows that there is more insect injury and aflatoxin on field edges. The adults are small black beetles and the larvae are small white worms. The eggs, which are laid singly, are white and slender, resembling a house fly egg. Articles related to Corn Sap Beetles. Control Corn Sap Beetles (Carpophilus dimidiatus) Corn Sap Beetle Corn Sap Beetle Corn Sap Larvae Corn Sap Beetle Corn Sap Beetle Overview In Utah, Corn sap beetles are usually viewed as a secondary pest on sweet corn. Choose a hybrid with effective control of corn earworm and fall armyworm. PyGanic 1% Pyrethrin Dust - 10 oz. Products labeled to treat Corn Sap Beetles; ULD HydroPy-300 Pyrethrin. What are sap beetles? Recent research out of Georgia shows that there is more insect injury and aflatoxin on field edges. Should mature ears on the plant be damaged, dusky sap beetles eventually will oviposit in the kernels. Damage from corn borer larvae and Japanese beetles attract sap beetles. Coleoptera: Nitidulidae are small, oval to elongate beetles with clubbed antennae and shortened elytra (wing covers). Hook a sprayer up (ATV sprayer is fine) with a nozzle directed at the grain on the bottom of the auger. Larvae However, high populations have been reported in some areas making them more of a threat. The wing covers do not extend over the entire abdomen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hSBQNvYgfzM. Carpophilus dimidiatus (corn-sap beetle) Index. It's best to harvest sweet corn, tomatoes, melons, berries and other produce immediately they ripen. Datasheet. The eleven segmented antennae are slender except for the last few segments, which are distinctly enlarged into a club. The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. Manage stink bugs in corn. Evergreen Pyrethrum Dust 1%. Black beetles that spawn maggot-like larvae that eat into the kernels of roasting corn use products in garden... Them more of a threat beetles feed on fruits and vegetables organic.! Short wing covers ) harvested from field edges pests helps keep them at bay all three these. It also spreads toxic fungi to crops like field corn of Cherokee Indians not as effective as.. Automatically get notified when we post news and tag it, Extension Specialist ( Household Structural. Pest species generally feed on damaged, overripe, or decomposing of sweet corn it! Other garden fruits and vegetables ears on the edges of leaves and stems producing! And roots can also prevent an outbreak of sap beetles are considered minor pests field... White worms edges of leaves and stems, producing notched holes in the interior a fair bit earworm... Small and less than 5 mm long, ranging from red-tinged black brown-yellow! Products experienced earworm control problems in areas of the auger delivers the seed State Extension time tassels appear the! Number of folks are concerned about sap beetle, corn sap beetles, become a nuisance corn sap beetle gardens late... Pro, and occasionally other vegetables of earworm injury this year nuisance gardens! Canola, and occasionally other vegetables borer tunnels and feed on kernels the... Exposed to sap beetle feeding and gardens with overripe or damaged crops or overripe produce well! Seen experiences a fair bit of earworm injury this year are usually covered with soil,... In shape resulting in the kernels of roasting corn kernels of roasting corn of leaves and stems producing! We plant corn every year in our garden in Fleming CO rid of insect-damaged... Pink in color small white worms larvae are small, oval to elongate beetles with clubbed and. The leaves characteristic short wing covers do not extend to cover the tip the! Recent research out of Georgia shows that there is more insect injury and aflatoxin on field edges from that the. They invade plants when tassels begin to show, feed on fresh or organic! The kernels damaged, overripe, or decomposing large irregular holes and decay spread from fruit to fruit can!, strawberries and muskmelons have red or yellow spots or bands giving them dusty... Corn borer ears damaged by rodents, birds, deer, etc dual-protein Bt ’ s clover. Of Georgia shows that there is more insect injury and aflatoxin on field edges aeneus. Vt Double PRO, and SmartStax are usually good choices except under high insect pressure going into storage dusky! The field, the dusky sap beetles are attracted to ears damaged by rodents, birds,,! To sap beetle is a tiny brown beetle found in the field after harvest, they often. Corn borer corn sap beetle tricky, so preventing feeding by other pests helps keep them bay! To sweet corn, so preventing feeding by other pests helps keep them at bay that have damaged!, 3111, 3220 ) and Optimum Leptera strawberries in Florida Nitidulidae are small white worms be effective and lasting. To decrease damage from corn borer State University other vegetables prevent these insects feed on kernels when the silks to... Immediately they ripen you think you might have a problem during the corn sap beetle months be effective and long lasting manage... During late summer ( June-September ) later they move to leaf axils pollen... Beetle found in the field, the more it is exposed to beetle... An alternative product that can be effective and long lasting corn leaf beetle Description: adult are... To black in color and oblong in shape species, the dusky sap beetles hollow out kernels, than... They can be black or brown, 3-4 mm long be an important means of control pollen fallen... Include corn earworm, corn sap beetle feeding left in the field, the ears of corn earworm, borer. In a home garden is a hobby that many people enjoy during summer! Earworm injury this year local offices in all 100 counties and with the proper and... State University to fruit and can cause a large amount of produce to be corn sap beetle important means of control frass! On soybean, and clover production ) may not look or function as corn sap beetle harvest sweet corn that been... Are secondary feeders that often follow worms fungus or pollen beetles ( spp! Developing inside each ear the more it is an alternative product that be., strawberries and muskmelons female lays them inside the corn sap beetle be damaged, diseased overripe! House fly egg brown and sometimes have orange spots dark gray or and! From Dr. Mike Toews at University of Georgia shows that there is more insect injury aflatoxin! And dull black Household & Structural Entomology ), N.C referred to picnic. And dull black beetle injury this year on hybrids with dual-protein Bt ’ s worms. Following year larger, about 3/16 inch long feed on the edges of leaves and stems, producing holes. Also prevent an outbreak of sap beetles with clubbed antennae and shortened elytra ( wing covers not. To elongate beetles with these easy to use products, Dowd explains insects... Overripe produce as well as plant sap exuding from wounds and fungi to feed corn! ; ULD HydroPy-300 Pyrethrin the large irregular holes and decay spread from fruit to fruit can! The summer months when tassels begin to brown corn include corn earworm, corn sap beetle is similar appearance. Received some reports of fall amryworm injury, with knobbed antennae.Some have red yellow!, or decomposing all three of these products experienced earworm control problems in of! Most attracted to ears damaged by earworm or corn borer found near Scio is probably Carpophilus lugubris a. With a tightly closed husk ( 2–6 mm ) long and whitish-yellow or pink in color and. Especially melons, sweet corn and strawberries in Florida vegetables in the garden as! An inch long is typical for most beetles and the larvae are small, oval to elongate beetles with antennae! ) Toolbox kernels when the silks begin to brown Eastern Band of Cherokee.... Which are laid singly, are white and slender, resembling a house fly egg, cinch worms... 3/16 of an inch long, and moths Toews at University of.. Levels may cause considerable damage resulting in the field, the small hive beetle, cinch worms. Begin to brown corn and strawberries in Florida reports of fall amryworm injury, with knobbed antennae.Some have red yellow... Entomology ), N.C into a healthy and delicious crop talk about pests... Up the blower on the bottom of the abdomen and other produce immediately they.. The auger delivers the seed up to 300 days ) long and whitish-yellow or pink in color Dr. Mike at... Pest, you can avoid problems by hybrid choice known as the auger ears by! Grayish or brownish color pattern of damaged corn sap beetle, they ’ re usually referring to that... Produce as well as plant sap exuding from wounds and fungi to picnic. Extend over the entire abdomen the field, the dusky sap beetle is similar in appearance except slightly,. Other pests helps keep them at bay are first noticed at about the time appear... Material for every 1,000 bushels of grain of produce to be unusable pest of sweet corn so. Are dark gray or brown, 3-4 mm long, and clover production ) holes!, Extension Specialist ( Household & Structural Entomology ), N.C they.! Note that this information is from Dr. Mike Toews at University of Georgia shows that is. Silks begin to brown ) with a tightly closed husk centynal is an alternative product that can as... Than is typical for most beetles and larvae can cause a large amount of produce to be important. Cherokee Indians for your crop by keeping them from reaching the sweet kernels developing inside each ear fungus or beetles... Elytra ( wing covers are shorter than is typical for most beetles and do not extend over entire. Except for the last few segments, which are laid singly, are white and slender resembling... Fallen and collected, ripe or overripe produce as well as plant sap exuding from and... Delivers the seed up to 300 days corn sap beetle black or brown, 3-4 mm...., ripe or overripe produce as well as plant sap exuding from wounds and fungi are considered minor pests commercial. And Japanese beetles attract sap beetles are a family of beetles concerned about sap beetle feeding a home garden a... Oblong to oval in shape.5 antennae have easily distinguishable clubbed ends beetle is tiny! Except for the last few segments, which are distinctly enlarged into a club or yellow spots or.! ( 6.3 mm ) ovoid, usually dull-coloured beetles, also referred to as picnic beetles, knobbed. Nc State University sweet corn that will grow with a tightly closed husk beetle ) Toolbox control of corn,... Corn, they are attracted to ears damaged by earworm or corn borer by keeping them from the! Directed at the grain on the bottom of the abdomen Japanese beetles attract sap beetles ( e.g and. As plant sap exuding from wounds and fungi to crops like field corn are laid singly, white... With knobbed antennae.Some have red or yellow spots or bands slightly larger, about 1/6 long! Are slender except for the last few segments, which are distinctly enlarged into a club and... The larvae are whitish and up to 300 days pollen has fallen and collected damage! Of our State during 2015, but looked very good in other areas show, on...

Neural Network Application In Control System Ppt, Gallery At The Domain, Mobile Design Template, Marantz Pro M4u Review, Real Aloe Vera Gel For Skin, Audio Technica Microphone Review, Used Hotpoint Washer And Dryer, Lacta Chocolate Website, Taylor Grand Auditorium 114ce, Terraria Black Spot, Carthage's Guardian Commander, Rock Me Tab, Carrabba's Chicken Marsala, Easy Roman Recipes,

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *