Owing to the limited arable land (5.8 feddans), and equally limited opportunities for expansion, it has become necessary to depend on the development and application of improved technology. Uneven water distribution. The most important crops grown in Egypt are discussed briefly below. Sugar crops. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), the world’s population is going to soar up to 9.6 billion in 2015. This will definitely contribute, in the long term, to increasing agricultural production in North African countries. The NRC, as a centre, could expand its wide range of nematological services to all the North African countries. Egyptian clover, berseem, is the major winter forage crop cultivated in the Nile Valley and delta. Although animal husbandry and poultry production have been promoted by the government, growth has been sluggish. Egypt's total agricultural crop production has increased by more than 20 percent in the past decade. Arithmetic density is also known as real density while physiological density is the number of people per unit of arable land. Water pollution. Egypt continuously incorporated technology as well as new crops from the This does not apply to small farmers with small landholdings (less than 1 feddan), and to many university graduates who are assigned 5 feddans each in newly reclaimed desert areas; nematicides are simply not within their economic reach This category of landholders therefore has no economic way of combating the nematode damage that is always present. The cyst-forming nematode has recently become an important pest in Egyptian agriculture. Losses in tomato crops have been large as a result of tomato leaf curl virus, early and late blight, and nematodes. Egypt is dependent on its wheat supply to run the bread subsidy program, which is estimated to benefit almost 70 million citizens of Egypt’s 90 million population. During the past two decades a few research projects on plant-parasitic nematodes have been financed through USAID programmes: Agriculture Development Systems (ADS), the Egyptian Major Cereals Improvement Project (EMCIP) and PL-480 programmes. SURVEY . Forage crops. km) The ox-drawn plow was designed in two gauges: heavy and light. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! When the Nile behaved as expected, which most commonly was the case, life went on as normal; when the flood failed or was excessive, disaster followed. ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY In 2014, Egypt’s gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$ 287 000 million of which the agricultural sector accounted for 14.5 percent. Nematicidal field trials are made every year under the supervision of MOA and in cooperation with many faculties of agriculture for the assessment of crop losses and to provide new recommendations for nematode control. So these are probably Bangladesh, India and Egypt. The population density of Egypt as a whole is 84 people per square kilometer (218/square mile), with Cairo having the heaviest density at 46,349 per kilometer square. The total land reclaimed as a result of the Aswān High Dam project reached more than 1,000,000 acres (400,000 hectares) by 1975, in addition to some 700,000 acres (284,000 hectares) converted from basin (one crop per year) irrigation to perennial irrigation. There are three sectors in which nematological research, teaching and extension fall. Construction of such projects as a fish farm and fishery complex at Lake Nasser have led to a considerable increase in the number of freshwater fish and in the size of the yearly total catch. Cereals. Egypt - Egypt - Demographic trends: Most of Egypt’s people live along the banks of the Nile River, and more than two-fifths of the population lives in urban areas. Conclusions and recommendations. Egypt was an aggressive culture, and, at one time, Egypt ruled from present-day Libya in the west; Syria in the northeast; and Ethiopia and Somalia and, perhaps, portions of sub-Saharan Africa in the south. Along with climate and corresponding types of vegetation, the economy of a nation also influences the level of agricultural production. At the same time, catches of sea fish in the waters off the Nile delta have declined, because of the change in the flow and character of Nile water after the construction of the Aswān High Dam. In 1952 a limit of 200 acres (80 hectares) was imposed on individual ownership of land, and this was lowered to 100 acres (40 hectares) in 1961 and to 50 acres (20 hectares) in 1969. The ongoing National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) is financed by USAID. This is a list of countries ordered by physiological density. Construction of the Aswān High Dam enabled not only control of the Nile’s floods but also the reclamation of vast tracts of land for farming. So it is also prudent that the farmer’s wood needs to increase their food production. Legislative measures do exist but are not always put into effect. Until the completion of the Aswān High Dam in 1970, the pattern of inundation and falling water, of high Nile and low Nile, established the Egyptian year and controlled the lives of the Egyptian farmers—and most Egyptians were tied to a life on the land—from birth to death, from century to century. Similar programs have been undertaken in the western delta and the Sinai Peninsula, and a project to make more than 1,500,000 acres (630,000 hectares) of desert cultivable was inaugurated in 2015. Vegetables. Rice is one of the major field crops, grown on nearly 500 000 feddans, and is considered the second most important export crop after cotton. However, bec… Unlike the situation in comparable developing countries, Egyptian agriculture is geared overwhelmingly toward commercial rather than subsistence production. ... Women living in France choose to have less children but die at higher rates than in Egypt due to greater pollution in industrialized countries such as France. The development of Egyptian agriculture was not created in a vacuum. and graduate students, have developed a keen interest in forming the Egyptian Society of Nematologists. Tags: Question 8 . Potatoes are the second most important vegetable after tomatoes, both in terms of cash value and total tonnage produced. Total area of Netherlands. Since its establishment in 1964, the centre has contributed a great deal of research information towards solving some of our national nematode problems in agriculture. The main summer field crop is cotton, which absorbs much of the available labour and represents a notable portion of the value of exports. Through this programme, limited research grants are allocated to a few faculties of agriculture to strengthen their facilities and carry out applied research in this context. There are three different kinds of population densities. Agricultural Density-the ratio of the # of farmers to the amount of arable land Therefore, the use of nematicidal applications is economic. Moreover, senior researchers in MOA and abroad who obtained their Ph.D. degrees at the centre still seek advice from our staff and collaborate with them in resolving nematode problems in the country. Urban density. Here is a video that illustrates the problem of water : Despite a considerable output, the cereal production in Egypt falls short of the country’s total consumption needs; a substantial proportion of foreign exchange is spent annually on the import of cereals and milling products. DEFINITION: Agricultural land (sq. Among other principal field crops are corn (maize), rice, wheat, sorghum, and fava (broad) beans (fūl). NOW 50% OFF! The success of Egyptian land reform is indicated by the substantial rise of land yields after 1952. Food and raw agricultural products represent around 19 percent of Fibre crops. Water efficiency. They are widely distributed in the light soils of the Nile Valley and delta as well as in the newly reclaimed desert areas. Agriculture in Egypt market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 3.2% during the forecast period (2020-2025). The Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research provided partial financial support to a number of research projects for improving food-crop production. Egypt, located in northeastern Africa, has an arid climate. A two-week training course in the different plant protection disciplines (insects, nematodes, mites, diseases, weeds) is held annually at Cairo University. Sugar cane is the main sugar crop in upper Egypt. Such technical training programmes would no doubt increase the capabilities of national research systems, and could produce new strategies for nematode management. Other international financial support through foundations and bilateral agreements is contributing to research in nematology for increasing agricultural crop production. However, in newly reclaimed areas heavily infected with root-knot nematodes, farmers, by experience, substitute tomato summer crops with a non-host crop. Agricultural Density is also a clue to level of industrialization (#2, #6, and #7 are all high – many farmers per sq km). Training of agricultural engineers involved in the field of plant protection and pest control has lately become the concern of MOA. Agricultural land (% of land area) Forest area (% of land area) Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Inspection of soil and seedling roots in private and government nurseries for root-knot and citrus nematodes is not seriously undertaken. This number has been slowly increasing for the past ten years. The area of agricultural land in Egypt is confined to the Nile Valley and delta, with a few oases and some arable land in Sinai. Their actual damage has not been assessed. The Nile River flows over 6,600 kilometers (4,100 miles) until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. candidates. Strict crop rotation—in addition to government controls on the allocation of area to crops, on varieties planted, on the distribution of fertilizers and pesticides, and on marketing—contributes to high agricultural yield. Q. Wheat is the major winter cereal grain crop and the third major crop in terms of area planted (about 600 000 feddans). Despite its documentation-rich bureaucracy, dynastic Egypt has not left us anything like a national census that would tell us how many people lived in the Nile Valley and Delta, nor one for any of its major population centres. 900 seconds . Livestock production is an essential element of Egypt’s agricultural sector. 9 years ago. The financial support of FAO to the NRC, and its recognition as a focal nematology research and training centre, will certainly help the centre carry out its regional activities. The population density in France was 122.34 people per square kilometer (47.24 per square mile) in 2018. The measure is appropriate for a situation where agriculture … Oteifa who devoted time and effort to initiate the establishment of the centre, and start a school of nematology in Egypt at that time. Agricultural engineers as well as teachers at agricultural technical high schools attend this training course. Agriculture in ancient Egypt was the most important aspect of the life of ancient Egyptians. The wide distribution, extensive host range and involvement with other micro-organisms in disease complexes put nematodes on top of the list of plant pests affecting agricultural production in the country. Agricultural land: 2007: 35 380: km 2: Agricultural land per 1000 population : 2007: 0.4: km 2 per 1000 population: Agricultural land (percentage of total area) 2007: 3.5 % of total area: Agricultural land (percentage of land area) 2007: 3.6 % of land area: Arable land: 2007: 30 180: km 2: Arable land per 1000 population : 2007: 0.4: km 2 per 1000 population: Arable land (percentage of total area) Most universities also provide more opportunities for postgraduate studies in nematology. Total population of Egypt = c. 1.6 million 1800 BC (height of the Middle Kingdom) Agricultural efforts by Middle Kingdom kings significantly increased the amount of cultivable land and density of occupation in the Faiyum and in the Delta, together with a slight rise in population density in all areas. "Arable land" is defined by the … It has become essential, therefore, to implement strong and effective programmes of agricultural research, including integrated plant-parasitic nematode management. Results of some research work carried out by the NRC show the possibility of using some biological agents (bacteria or fungi) as well as soil solarization in controlling root-knot nematodes. The rapid increase in Egypt’s population prompted an intensification of cultivation almost without parallel elsewhere. During the same period, however, an agricultural area almost as large was lost to industry and growing towns. Root-knot in Egypt is the major problem in greenhouse cultures and commercial nurseries, where high-value crops are grown in relatively small areas. These sectors are: Egyptian universities, the Agricultural Research Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture (ARC/MOA), and the National Research Centre of the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. The total area cropped annually is about 11.5 million feddans, which represents a cropping ratio of about 2:1. In addition, the Nile is an exceptional source of water, and soil near the Nile is generally of excellent quality. These are all things and people that make Egypt memorable and fascinating. Tomatoes are grown in three seasons - winter, summer and autumn - on about 3 percent of Egypt's total planted area. It contributes nearly one-eighth of the GDP, employs roughly one-fourth of the labour force, and provides the country—through agricultural exports—with an important part of its foreign exchange. This was partly the result of several complementary measures of agrarian reform, such as regulation of land tenure and rent control, that accompanied the redistribution of the land. Rent control has since been discontinued for land and new constructions but remains in effect for older real estate. The lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) So both Egypt and the Netherlands need land to produce food but the Dutch require fewer farmers than the Egyptians Irrigation tools. Cairo University does have a nematology research centre where some highly sophisticated scientific equipment is made available through United States Agency for International Development (USAID) projects and other foreign funds. Introduction Support for nematology Cotton has traditionally been the most important fibre crop in Egypt and the leading agricultural export crop. Nematological problems Furthermore, a collaborative IPM programme has also started between the Nematology Research Centre of Cairo University and four United States universities: North Carolina State University, the University of Maryland, the University of Georgia and the State University of Florida. It could also offer advanced training for professional, graduate and postdoctoral research fellows. 2. Oil rents amounted up to 15 percent of GDP in the 1990s but are down to 7 percent in 2013. Its most important structure, the Mubarak Pumping Station, was completed in 2005, but only a fraction of the projected land area was brought under production after two decades. For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. Foreign aid research programmes in nematology are limited. During the same period, the rate of population growth has increased at a slightly higher rate than the increase in crop production. Other important crops include sugarcane, tomatoes, sugar beets, potatoes, and onions. 4. Production (and consumption) of agricultural plant commodities has a diverse geographical distribution. Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. The Nematology Research Centre (NRC) is entrusted with the nematology part of the course. Lack of forests, permanent meadows, or pastures places a heavy burden on the available arable land, which constitutes only about 3 percent of the total area. Cairo alone, which is the capital city of Egypt, has a population of around 10.902 million people (according to estimations made in 2009). are considered economically important nematodes causing disease in Egyptian clover, legume crops and banana trees. Quarantine measures should be enforced to prevent the transport of any infected plant parts, infected soil, or organic manures to newly reclaimed areas. 3 stages of the population policy are identified. The statistic shows the population density in Egypt from 2008 to 2018. A steering committee is being formed to help in developing the society. The fruit-planted area has expanded over the last three decades to reach about 200 000 feddans. Example of Physiological Density: Egypt-difference between physiological and arithmetic density indicates that much of the land isn't suitable for agriculture-most Egyptians live in Nile River Valley. It was established by cooperation between the University of Cairo, the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Supreme Council of Science and Technology, and was opened in 1964. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) is encouraging farmers to control nematodes in vegetable crops, citrus, grapes, cotton and soybeans and to follow the recommendations of the Ministerial Higher Committee for Pest Management. and some virus diseases reported in Egyptian vineyards has not yet been confirmed. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. On the regular behaviour of the Nile rested the prosperity, the very continuity, of the land. Water buffalo, cattle, asses, goats, and sheep are the most important livestock. Over the past 60 years, Egypt’s population has grown by more than 60 million people. It is the most widely grown field crop and occupies an area which totals 1.2 million feddans. Period of Arab and Turkish governors (639–868), The Mamluk and Ottoman periods (1250–1800), From the French to the British occupation (1798–1882), The French occupation and its consequences (1798–1805), Muḥammad ʿAlī and his successors (1805–82), The period of British domination (1882–1952), The British occupation and the Protectorate (1882–1922). The entire crop area is irrigated, except for some rain-fed areas on the Mediterranean coast. Cotton, soybean, tomato, cowpea, beans and jasmine are among the hosts of this nematode. km) Forest area (% of land area) Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. These include a number of bean crops that are used for human consumption, such as broad beans and soybeans. Agriculture is a major component of the Egyptian economy, contributing 11.3 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. The New Valley project, begun in 1997, was initially slated to bring roughly 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) under production in the southern Western Desert by pumping water from Lake Nasser through a long canal. Rotation is not usually a practical control measure because of the intensive use of the land and the government pricing policy for some crops. The heavy plow went first and cut the furrows while the lighter plow came behind turning up the earth. About 90 percent of the yield is used for sugar extraction. some of the major factors playing havoc with water security in Egypt : 1. It was estimated, however, in individual fields and experimental plots to be around 25 percent. Other subtropical fruits are also grown in Egypt, including grapes, stone fruits and pome fruits. Nematicides constitute a high percentage of the total pesticides imported annually. Read more The Centre occupies 1 800 m2 and has an additional area of 2.5 feddans for microplots and greenhouses. Food legumes. The use of nematode-resistant or -tolerant varieties and rootstocks is always recommended in tomato, soybean, peach and citrus. Now, we are going to talk about the techniques of farming and tools that were used in agriculture. Agricultural land (sq. Area of land covered by forests. km). Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route. agricultural density is of course , along either side of the river nile ,, all the way , from the south , till the north of egypt . There are no forests or any permanent vegetation of economic significance apart from the land under cultivation. All of the 71 nematologists, and more junior nematologists (M.Sc.) Only 6 percent of the country is arable and agricultural land; the rest of the country is desert. Four genera of these plant-parasitic nematodes have been identified and classified as important pathogens that can cause severe damage to some important crops in the country: Meloidogyne spp., Rotylenchulus spp., Tylenchulus spp. The disease caused by this nematode is particularly severe on the heavy soil of the Nile Valley and delta. Abstract PIP: This study, which attempts to shed some light on population policies adopted by the Egyptian government since 1962, examines 3 factors, which include: congruency of population policies with the prevalent religious beliefs; responsiveness of these policies to the actual needs of the people of Egypt; and legitimacy of the policies. Control measures Egypt has an arid climate with an annual average rainfall ranging from 60 to 190 mm along the Mediterranean coast to 25 to 60 mm in the Nile delta, and less than 25 mm in upper Egypt and adjacent areas. As well as the training the centre provides to graduate students, it also provides training for agricultural engineers working in the field of plant protection, and always demonstrates interest and capabilities in extension, although the centre has no direct links with the extension service. Agriculture remains an important sector of the Egyptian economy. Areas of research that have taken place at the centre throughout the past three decades include surveys for nematode infection in major crops (cotton, sugar cane, maize, legumes, vegetables especially tomatoes, watermelons, grapes, fruit-trees including citrus, olives, stone fruits and pome fruits). km) The agricultural lands were irrigated by the water of the Nile River and its canals. Traditional irrigation methods in rural Egypt. and the lance nematode (Hoploliamus spp.) The Nematology Research Centre (NRC), Cairo University, is by far the largest, best-staffed (16 with Ph.D. degrees) and best-equipped nematology research centre in, at least, North Africa. Maize is the second most important crop (750 000 feddans), but at least 50 percent of its production is used for livestock and poultry feed. Researchers suggest that by 2050, the population could reach between 120 and 150 million. This centre is affiliated to the Zoology and Nematology Department of the Faculty of Agriculture. The area of agricultural land in Egypt is confined to the Nile Valley and delta, with a few oases and some arable land in Sinai. The actual damage caused by these nematodes is difficult to assess at the national level. The entire crop area is irrigated, except for some rain-fed areas on the Mediterranean coast. Commercial companies working in the field of pesticides have supported some short-term research projects mainly on nematode surveys and control. The total cultivated area is 7.2 million feddans (1 feddan = 0.42 ha), representing only 3 percent of the total land area. About 96 percent of Egypt’s total area is desert. Citrus, primarily oranges that represent 85 percent of total citrus production, makes up 50 percent of total fruit production. Higher population density … Egypt is the world’s principal producer of long-staple cotton (1.125 inches [2.85 cm] and longer), normally supplying about one-third of the world crop; total Egyptian cotton production, however, constitutes just a tiny fraction of the global yield. Working out how many people lived in ancient Egypt is far from an easy task. 3. It includes an integrated pest management (IPM) programme on major crops. In 2018, the density of Egypt's population amounted to 98.87 inhabitants per square kilometer. The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is next to the root-knot nematodes in inflicting significant crop losses in many vegetable and field crops. km) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (sq. Most students enrolled for postgraduate studies come from the Plant Pathology and Plant Protection Institutes of the ARC, as well as from the universities themselves. and Pratylenchus spp. km) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (sq. With the exception of the University of Cairo, nematology laboratory equipment is inadequate for the training of graduate students. have been recognized as a major pest causing substantial reductions in the yield of almost all vegetables, including tomatoes, fruit-trees including peaches and grapevines, and field crops including cotton and sunflower. The 12 universities in Egypt include 14 faculties of agriculture in which nematology is taught to undergraduate and postgraduate students. Favorite Answer. When we think of Egypt, we might think of pyramids, mummies, hieroglyphs, and maybe even King Tut or Cleopatra. In the case of Egypt, while the crude density is only 72, physiological density works out to be nearly 2,500 persons per square kilometer of cultivable land. Egypt’s biological resources, centred around the Nile, have long been one of its principal assets. The climate is generally very uniform with good sunshine. But did you know that Egypt would not have existed without their incredible abundance of food, made possible by agricultural techniques that helped them harness the cycles of the Nile River? Egypt and Netherlands both have high physiological densities, but the Dutch have a much lower agricultural density. Inefficient irrigation techniques. The agricultural sector accounts for 28 percent of all jobs, and over 55 percent of employment in Upper Egypt is agriculture-related. But how do you grow food in the desert hea… Heterodera zea and H. cajani are of common occurrence in maize and legume crops. MOA, through its experiment stations and Institute of Plant Pathology and the NRC of Cairo University, provides the service of examining soil samples for nematodes, issues the necessary recommendations for control measures, and follows up nematicidal applications. Complete crop losses were also reported for tomato crops when the soil population of the nematodes was very large, especially in the summer crop and in sandy soils. 00. animallover. The landholdings are fragmented, with the average size of farm units being 2.5 feddans. Credit should be given to Professor B.A. There are several trained nematologists in Egypt (71 with Ph.D. degrees) distributed among the universities and the Agricultural Research Centre and the National Research Centre as follows: Cairo University (Giza) 16; Cairo University (Fayoum) 2; Ain Shams University 2; Assiut University 2; Tanta University (Kafr El-Sheikh) 2; Mansoura University 2; Zagazig University (Zagazig) 3; Zagazig University (Moshtohor) 1; Menia University 1; Menofia University 3; Suez Canal University 2; Al-Azhar University 3; Helwan University 1; Alexandria University 4; Agricultural Research Centre 13; Desert Institute 2; National Research Centre 12. The yearly inundation was the most important aspect of Egyptian agriculture, but the people obviously still needed to work the land. Egypt has two seasons of cultivation, one for winter and another for summer crops. One of the major obstacles facing the production of more food for Egypt's fast-growing population is the damage caused by pests. It is hoped that such biological control may be integrated into the nematode control programmes. It has been detected in at least 60 percent of the citrus-growing areas in Egypt. Egypt has been the scene of one of the most successful attempts at land reform. Infrastructure and training Out of 6 000 students who receive a B.Sc. Nematology in Egypt Moreover, the nematology research programme has generally included work on the biology, pathogenicity, population dynamics and control of plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as a good deal of work on the use of entomogenous nematodes in the biological control of insect pests. Land area, water area. The total cultivated area is 7.2 million feddans (1 feddan = 0.42 ha), representing only 3 percent of the total land area. With a lack of such direct evidence, various estimates of population have been made on the basis of different types of evidence. Area of agricultural lands - arable land, permanent crops, permanent meadows and pastures. How many of each type of land belongs to each man live in the country. Association between dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.) Egypt FAO STAT - Land use and Agricultural Inputs, Egypt FAO STAT-Food,Nutrition and Food Security, Egypt Cereals Production, Egypt FAO STAT -Water resources & Agriculture production and trade, Egypt FAO STAT - Economic Indicators Now at least 20 plant-parasitic nematode genera are reported to occur in all the agricultural lands of Egypt. seem to cause some noticeable damage to crops, but none of them has been of great importance to the economy of the country. Following the construction of the Aswān High Dam, the Egyptian government encouraged the development of a fishing industry. degree every year, nearly 300 specialize either in plant pathology or economic entomology and study nematology at the undergraduate level. The citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) is an important and destructive pest of citrus trees in Egypt. Large numbers of undergraduate enrolments are usually recorded at the 14 faculties of agriculture. Sugar beet also grows in large areas in the Nile delta, and contributes to the sugar industry in Egypt. The three seasons of the Egyptian year were even named after the land conditions produced by the river: akhet, the “inundation”; peret, the season when the land emerged from the flood; and shomu, the time when water was short.